Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a physiatrist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, ligaments, or nervous system. At IPM, we commonly treat patients who have had an amputation, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and other debilitating injuries. IPM also treats patients with muscle and joint injuries, pain syndromes, non-healing wounds, and other disabling conditions. Our doctors are trained to perform intramuscular and interarticular injections, as well as nerve conduction studies.


At IPM, our physicians have extensive experience in treating sports-related injuries from all levels, whether it be high-school, collegiate, or professional sports. Doctors specializing in sports medicine diagnoses treat and rehabilitate injuries caused by athletic activity. Sports medicine practitioners also help people improve their athletic performance and prevent future injuries. You don’t have to be a professional athlete to seek help from a sports medicine practitioner. Doctors specializing in sports medicine treat patients who enjoy working out at the gym and those who play sports for fun, too.

Although exercise is a healthy habit (it wards off weight gain and improves cardiovascular health) it can sometimes cause injuries. While there are many reasons you may get injured on and off the field, these are the most common causes:

  • Poor training practices
  • Not stretching or warming up properly before physical activity
  • Increasing activity too quickly
  • Using wrong or ill-fitting workout gear
  • Unexpected, accidental injuries, most often from contact sports participation


The severity of injuries can range from minor to very serious. Some of the most common sports injuries include:

  • ACL tears
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Fractures
  • Weight lifters shoulder
  • Rotator cuff tears
  • Meniscal injuries and tears
  • Sprains and strains
  • Tendinitis
  • Concussions
  • Repetitive stress injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Rotator cuff injuries
  • Dislocated shoulder
  • Labral tears (shoulder, hip)
  • Minor injuries like bruises, muscle cramps, lower back pain and shin splints

There are two kinds of sports injuries: acute and chronic. Acute injuries, such as sprains, strains and fractures, typically occur suddenly during physical activity. For athletes, acute injuries are typically brought on by a blow or force — like getting tackled or hit during a rugby game. Signs of an acute injury include:

  • Sudden, severe pain
  • Swelling
  • Loss of ability to place weight on the injured joint
  • Tender joints and bones
  • Loss of ability to move the injured joint
  • Extreme leg or arm weakness
  • A joint or bone that is visibly out of place

Chronic, or overuse injuries typically develop slowly over time, usually from repetitive training like running, swimming, throwing, or doing the same set of exercises too often. Signs of a chronic injury include:

  • Pain during exercise
  • Dull aches during periods of rest